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You searched for: mediatype:audio AND collection:Religions_of_the_Ancient_Mediterranean AND subject:"Ancient History"
[audio]Podcast 3.11: Secret Book of John, part 1 - The Spiritual Realm - Philip A. Harland
Here I begin to explain the worldview of the Apocryphon of John, one of the Nag Hammadi writings (part 1 of 2). Like other writings in that collection, this author makes a clear distinction between the perfect spiritual realm, also known as the "fullness", and an inferior material realm created by a jealous god or "ruler" (archon). In this episode I describe the perfect spiritual realm and the process of emanations from the perfect "Invisible Spirit" or "Father".
Keywords: early Christianity; ancient history; nag hammadi; apocryphon of john; gnosticism; platonism
Downloads: 14,569
[audio]Podcast 8.4 Other Predecessors Of Satan In The Hebrew Bible - Philip A. Harland
Here I explore other building blocks of Satan's story from Israelite culture by looking at arrogant foreign kings and angels or messengers of God in the Hebrew Bible.
Keywords: Satan; Judaism; Israelite culture; Hebrew Bible; Devil; religion; ancient history
Downloads: 4,823
[audio]Podcast 2.3: Mark's portrait of Jesus - Suffering Son, part 2 - Philip A. Harland
This concludes the discussion of how Jesus is portrayed in the narrative of the gospel of Mark, namely as the secretive and suffering Son of God (part 2 of 2). This episode is part of series two ("Early Christian Portraits of Jesus") of the Religions of the Ancient Mediterranean podcast, which is connected with the blog of the same name at
Keywords: bible; gospels; new testament; mark; ancient history
Downloads: 14,028
[audio]Podcast 8.8 Internal Functions Of The Rhetoric Of Satan In Paul And John - Philip A. Harland
Here I introduce Paul's apocalyptic worldview and go on to discuss the way in which some early Christian authors or leaders (e.g. Paul and the elder John) used the language or rhetoric of Satan or evil personified figures (e.g. Antichrist) to label and combat internal opponents within the Christian communities.
Keywords: ancient history; early christianity; satan; devil; antichrist; ancient judaism; apostle paul; johaninne epistles
Downloads: 4,343
[audio]Podcast 8.7 The Devil And Beelzebub In The Synoptic Gospels - Philip A. Harland
Here I discuss how the authors of the synoptic gospels portray Jesus in conflict with demons and with the Devil.
Keywords: satan; devil; beelzebub; early christianity; ancient history; ancient judaism; gospel of mark; gospel of Luke
Downloads: 4,650
[audio]Podcast 8.10 Jealous Satan And The Serpent In The Life Of Adam And Eve - Philip A. Harland
Here I discuss the expanded story of Adam and Eve that emerged around the turn of the common era as a way of explaining the motivations of Satan (primarily jealousy) in connection with both the creation of humans in the image of God and the serpent in the garden.
Keywords: Satan; Devil; Life of Adam and Eve; ancient Judaism; early Christianity; ancient history
Downloads: 269
[audio]Podcast 8.6 Mastema In Jubilees And Beliar In The Dead Sea Scrolls - Philip A. Harland
Here I continue to trace the development of evil personified figures in Judean literature around the turn of the first century BCE, focussing on Mastema (Enmity personified) and Beliar or Belial (Worthless One).  I also discuss the Princes of Darkness and of Light in the Dead Sea Scrolls.
Keywords: Satan; Judaism; devil; beliar; belial; mastema; jubilees; dead sea scrolls; early christianity; ancient history
Downloads: 5,111
[audio]Podcast 8.12 Satan's Demons And The Greco Roman Gods In Justin Martyr And Origen ( 2nd 3rd Centuries) - Philip A. Harland
In the first of two episodes dealing with the Church Fathers, here I look at how Justin Martyr and Origen contribute to the story of Satan and his demons in countering external opponents.
Keywords: Satan; Devil; Church Fathers; Celsus; Origen; Justin Martyr; ancient history; early Christianity
Downloads: 325
[audio]Podcast 8.9 A Satanic Empire In John's Apocalypse - Philip A. Harland
Here I discuss Satan in John's Apocalypse (Revelation), pointing out how this author pulls together many strands of the story of Satan and does so to demonize an external power: the Roman empire.
Keywords: Satan; the Devil; John's Apocalypse; Revelation; early Christianity; ancient Judaism; ancient history; Roman empire; apocalypticism
Downloads: 4,109
[audio]Podcast 8.5 Fallen Angels In 1 Enoch (ca. 225 BCE) - Philip A. Harland
Here I discuss 1 Enoch's expanded story of the fallen angels headed by Azazel and Semyaz (based an interpretation of Genesis 6), which came to play a crucial role in the emerging story of Satan.
Keywords: Satan; devil; 1 enoch; fallen angels; ancient Judaism; early Christianity; Genesis; flood; Hebrew Bible; ancient history; apocalypticism
Downloads: 5,139
[audio]Podcast 3.9: Marcionites and the Unknown God - Philip A. Harland
Here I explore Marcionite forms of Christianity, which contrast significantly to the Judean forms discussed in the previous episode. Followers of Marcion believed that the legalistic God of the Hebrew Bible was to be distinguished from the loving, unknown Father-God who sent Jesus, and that Law was opposed to Gospel. This is part of series 3 ("Diversity in Early Christianity: 'Heresies' and Struggles") of the Religions of the Ancient Mediterranean podcast.
Keywords: marcion; heresies; diversity; early Christianity; christian origins; ancient history
Downloads: 13,589
[audio]Podcast 2.8: John's Portrait of Jesus - Son and Word (part 1) - Philip A. Harland
Here I discuss how the gospel of John portrays Jesus as both the Word of God and the Son sent by the Father. I also deal with this gospel's stress on the importance of "signs" pointing to Jesus' identity and the way in which Jesus ("Lamb of God") is viewed as a fulfillment of Jewish festivals, especially Passover (part 1 of 2).
Keywords: new testament; bible; gospels; gospel of John; early Christianity; Christian origins; ancient history; Jesus
Downloads: 14,311
[audio]Podcast 2.7: Luke's Portrait of Jesus - Prophet Elijah (part 2) - Philip A. Harland
Here I continue to discuss how the gospel of Luke portrays Jesus as a prophet like Elijah, which also entails presenting Jesus as a saviour to the poor and marginalized of society (part 1 of 2).
Keywords: gospels; jesus; early christianity; new testament; bible; gospel of luke; ancient history
Downloads: 13,766
[audio]Podcast 2.6: Luke's Portrait of Jesus - Prophet Elijah (part 1) - Philip A. Harland
Here I discuss how the gospel of Luke portrays Jesus as a prophet like Elijah, which also entails presenting Jesus as a saviour to the poor and marginalized of society (part 1 of 2). In this first part, I provide some important background for understanding this two volume work, Luke-Acts, both as ancient biography and as ancient history-writing.
Keywords: early Christianity; new testament; bible; gospel of luke; gospels; jesus; ancient history; christian origins; early christianity
Downloads: 14,767
[audio]Podcast 3.5: Diversity in Asia Minor - A Regional Case Study - Philip A. Harland
Here I use the region of Asia Minor (Turkey) as a case study that allows me to outline various strands and styles within Christianity in the first and second centuries. I then go on to outline our approach to studying the worldviews and practices of Christian groups and "heresies" in the second and third centuries. This is part of series 3 ("Diversity in Early Christianity: 'Heresies' and Struggles") of the Religions of the Ancient Mediterranean podcast.
Keywords: early Christianity; new testament; bible; christian origins; paul; history; ancient history; religion
Downloads: 13,439
[audio]Podcast 2.5: Matthew's portrait of Jesus - New Moses (part 2) - Philip A. Harland
Here I continue the discussion of Matthew's portrait of Jesus as the new David and new Moses (part 2 of 2). I also delve into tensions between the Matthean community and other groups of Judeans in the late first century. This is part of series 2 ("Early Christian portraits of Jesus") of the Religions of the Ancient Mediterranean podcast.
Keywords: early Christianity; christian origins; new testament; matthew; gospels; jesus; ancient history
Downloads: 13,989
[audio]Podcast 1.4: Paul and the followers of Jesus at Corinth, part 1 - Philip A. Harland
This fourth episode is part one of three that look at the followers of Jesus at Corinth through Paul's letter known as 1 Corinthians in the New Testament. After discussing the city of Corinth, I go on to consider the history of Paul's interactions with these Christians, which was characterized by rocky relations. Then we delve into the situation among the Corinthians that led Paul to write his letter, primarily the issue of social and religious divisions within the Jesus groups at Corinth (in 1 ...
Keywords: early Christianity; christian origins; apostle paul; 1 corinthians; corinth; greco-roman world; judaism; ancient history
Downloads: 18,455
[audio]Podcast 2.2: Mark's portrait of Jesus - Suffering Son (part 1) - Philip A. Harland
Here I consider how Jesus is portrayed in the narrative of the gospel of Mark, namely as the secretive and suffering Son of God (part 1 of 2). I discuss Mark's use of literary irony in connection with the secrecy issue and cover critical points at which Jesus' identity comes to the fore in this ancient biography written for a Gentile (non-Judean) audience. This episode is part of series two ("Early Christian Portraits of Jesus") of the Religions of the Ancient Mediterranean podcast, which is con...
Keywords: Jesus; Gospels; early christianity; christian origins; bible; new testament; ancient history; gospel of mark
Downloads: 15,459
[audio]Podcast 2.1 Introduction to the Gospels as Portraits of Jesus - Philip A. Harland
Here I discuss some introductory issues regarding the gospels, including their status as ancient biographies or portraits of Jesus and the literary relationships among the synoptic gospels. This sets the stage for an historical and literary study of portraits of Jesus in Mark, Matthew, Luke, and John. This episode is part of series two ("Early Christian Portraits of Jesus") of the Religions of the Ancient Mediterranean podcast, which is connected with the blog of the same name at
Keywords: Jesus; early christianity; ancient biographies; gospels; synoptic gospels; ancient history; christian origins
Downloads: 17,281 4.00 out of 5 stars4.00 out of 5 stars4.00 out of 5 stars4.00 out of 5 stars(1 review)
[audio]Podcast 2.9: John's Portrait of Jesus - Son and Word (part 2) - Philip A. Harland
Here I continue to discuss how the gospel of John portrays Jesus as both the Word of God and the Son sent by the Father (part 2 of 2).
Keywords: jesus; bible; new testament; gospels; gospel of John; ancient history; early christianity; christian origins
Downloads: 14,088
[audio]Podcast 1.1: Paul in his own words - Philip A. Harland
In this first episode on Paul and his communities, we look at autobiographical statements by Paul as a way of introducing Paul and his letters from an historical perspective. This is part of series one (Paul and his Communities) of the Religions of the Ancient Mediterranean podcast. (Episode re-edited and improved January 29, 2009.)
Keywords: history, early christianity, new testament, apostle paul; religion; ancient history; early christianity; ancient religions
Downloads: 24,041
[audio]Podcast 2.4: Matthew's portrait of Jesus - New Moses (part 1) - Philip A. Harland
Here I discuss the very Judean portrait of Jesus as the new David and new Moses in the Gospel of Matthew (part 1 of 2). This illustrates well the ways in which ancient biographical writers, including the gospel authors, shaped portraits of the main character using specific types of the past or stereotypes. This is part of series 2 ("Early Christian portraits of Jesus") of the Religions of the Ancient Mediterranean podcast.
Keywords: early Christianity; christian origins; church history; gospels; matthew; judaism; ancient history
Downloads: 15,219
[audio]Podcast 3.10: Introducing Gnostic Worldviews - Philip A. Harland
Here I set the stage for the study of specific Nag Hammadi and related writings by outlining in broad terms some common denominators or assumptions in the range of worldviews traditionally labeled "gnostic". This includes discussion of the Middle Platonic assumptions of many authors. I also deal with the importance of knowledge (gnosis) in the understanding of how salvation from the material realm, which was created by an inferior god, takes place...
Keywords: early christianity; ancient history; gnosticism; gnostic; christian origins; plato; platonic philosophy; nag hammadi
Downloads: 15,075
[audio]Podcast 1.10: Paul's response to the Romans - Philip A. Harland
This episode considers Paul's response to the ethnic divisions that existed among groups of Jesus-followers at Rome. Here I discuss Paul's main arguments regarding the equally condemnable and equally save-able status of both Judeans and Greeks (or Gentiles), as well as Paul's view that "all Israel will be saved". This series is part of the Religions of the Ancient Mediterranean podcast, connected with the blog of the same name at
Keywords: early Christianity; christian origins; bible; new testament; apostle paul; romans; greco-roman religion; ancient history; history
Downloads: 15,979
[audio]Podcast 3.6: Sources for the Study of Diversity - Gnostic, Apocryphal, Patristic - Philip A. Harland
Here I sketch out our main sources for the study of diverse Christian groups or "heresies" in the second and third centuries, including discussion of the early Christian Apocrypha, the Nag Hammadi writings, and the Church Fathers, or patristic writings. This is part of series 3 ("Diversity in Early Christianity: 'Heresies' and Struggles") of the Religions of the Ancient Mediterranean podcast.
Keywords: early Christianity; apocrypha; nag hammadi; gnosticism; gnostic; church fathers; patristic; new testament; christian origins; bible; ancient history
Downloads: 13,172
[audio]Podcast 3.7: Jewish Followers of Jesus, part 1 - Ebionites - Philip A. Harland
Beginning with James the brother of Jesus and the Jerusalem church, here I trace evidence for Judean followers of Jesus and discuss their gradual marginalization. In particular, I focus attention on Jewish-Christian groups that the patristic sources (e.g. Irenaeus, Epiphanius) label "the Ebionites", or "poor ones". This is part of series 3 ("Diversity in Early Christianity: 'Heresies' and Struggles") of the Religions of the Ancient Mediterranean podcast.
Keywords: early Christianity; christian origins; judaism; ancient history; ebionites; james the just; new testament; bible; church fathers; irenaeus
Downloads: 14,022
[audio]Podcast 1.11: Legacies of Paul - Women's leadership, part 1 - Philip A. Harland
This and the following episode look at legacies and interpretations of Paul after his death. In particular, I use several letters written in the name of Paul (the Pastoral epistles) and a novelistic story about Paul and a woman named Thecla (Acts of Paul and Thecla) as a window into debates about leadership of women in groups of Jesus-followers in the second century. These diverging portraits of Paul can be better understood against the background of Greek and Roman criticisms of certain early C...
Keywords: early christianity; bible; christian origins; new testament; thecla; acts of paul and thecla; pastoral epistles; 1 timothy; titus; apostle paul; greco-roman religions; ancient history; history
Downloads: 15,809
[audio]Podcast 1.12: Legacies of Paul - Women's leadership, part 2 - Philip A. Harland
This final episode in series 1 concludes the discussion of the Acts of Paul and Thecla in relation to the Pastoral epistles, addressing the ways in which Paul was used within debates about womens' leadership in second century groups of Jesus-followers. This is the final episode in series 1. Series 2 will take an historical and literary look at the gospels in terms of "Portraits of Jesus in Early Christianity"...
Keywords: early Christianity; history; Christian origins; new Testament; bible; acts of paul and thecla; pastoral epistles; 1 timothy; 2 timothy; titus; women; greco-roman society; ancient history; roman empire
Downloads: 15,408
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